Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1911), The Principles of Scientific Management, New York, NY, USA and London, UK: Harper & Brothers


Abraham Maslow introduces a hierarchy of needs, which popularizing the concept of needs being more than just those things that people could not live without.

Maslow, Abraham. (1954) Motivation and personality. Harper and Row New York, New York.


James, Bernard. “Can Needs Define Educational Goals?” Adult Education 6 (1956), 95-100.


Corrigan, R. E., & Kaufman, R. (1966). Why System Engineering. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers.


Gilbert, T. (1967). Praxeonomy: A systematic approach to identifying training needs. Management of Personnel Quarterly; 6, 3; pg. 20


Bertalanffy, L. von, (1969). General System Theory. New York: George Braziller.


Mager, R. & Pipe, P. (1970). Analyzing Performance Problems, or You Really Oughta Wanna. Belmont, CA: Lake Publishing Co.

Lessinger, L. M. (1970). Every Kid A Winner. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Kaufman, R. A. (1972). Educational System Planning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. (Also Planificacion de Systemas Educativos [translation of Educational System Planning]). Mexico City: Editorial Trillas, S.A., 1973).

Bradshaw J. (1972) “A taxonomy of social need.” in McLachlan G (ed.) Problems and progress in medical care. Seventh series NPHT/Open University Press.


Harless, J. H. (1975). An ounce of analysis is worth a pound of objectives. Newnan, Georgia: Harless Performance Guild.

Branson, R. K., et al. (1975:Aug.). Interservice procedures for instructional systems development (Phases I, II, III, IV, V, and Executive Summary. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command Pamphlet 350. Fort Monroe, VA.

English, F. W. & Kaufman, R. (1975). Needs assessment: Focus for curriculum development. Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).


The first (and only) National Needs Assessment Conference was held in Oakland, California. The conference was sponsored by the National Institute of Education and the International Society of Educational Planners. Described in: Witkin, R.B. (1976). Needs Assessment: State of the Art. Educational Planning. 3(2), 1-5.

Kaufman, R. (1976). Identifying & Solving Problems: A system approach. San Diego, CA: University Associates Publishers. Kaufman, R., & English, F. W. (1976). Needs Assessment: A Guide for Educational Managers. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.

Kaufman, R. (1976). System approaches to education. In S. E. Goodman (Ed.), Handbook on contemporary education, 107 113. New York: R. R. Bowker Co. (Xerox Educational Corporation).

Kaufman, R. (1976). Organizational improvement: A review of models and an attempted synthesis. Group and Organization Studies, 1(4), 474-495.


Burton, J. K. & Merrill, P. F. (1977). Needs assessment: Goals, needs and priorities. In L. J. Briggs (Ed.) Introduction to Instructional Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Monette, Maurice L. “The Concept of Educational Need: An Analysis of Selected Literature.” Adult Education 27 (1977), 116-27.

Kaufman, R. (1977). Needs assessment: Internal and external. Journal of Instructional Development, 1(1), 5-8. (Also reprinted in Revista de Tecnologia Educativa, No. 1, Vol. 3, 1977).



Gilbert, T. (1978) Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kaufman, R., & English, F. W. (1979). Needs assessment: Concept and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Kaufman, R. (1979). Identifying and Solving PRob

Maurice L. Monette (1979). 
Need Assessment: a Critique of Philosophical Assumptions. Adult Education Quarterly 29; 83

Kaufman, R. (1981). Determining and diagnosing organizational needs. Group and Organizational Studies, 6(3), 312-322.


Zemke, R., & Kramlinger, T. (1982). Figuring Things Out: A trainer’s guide to needs and task analysis. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.


Kaufman, R. and Stone, B. (1983). Planning for Organizational Success: A practical guide. New York:Wiley.

Lareau, L. (1983). Needs Assessment of the Elderly: Conclusions and Methodological Approaches. The Gerontologist. 23 (5): 518-526.

Kaufman, R. (1983). Needs assessment. In F. W. English (Ed.), Fundamental Curriculum Decisions. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervisory and Curriculum Development.

Ulschak, F. (1983). Human Resource Development: The theory and practice of needs assessment. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing.


Sen, A. (1985). Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Corrigan, R. E., & Corrigan, Betty O. (1985). SAFE: System approach for effectiveness. New Orleans, LA: R. E. Corrigan Associates.


Rossett, A. (1987). Training needs assessment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publishing Co.

Johnson, D., Meiller, L., Miller, L. & Summers, G. (1987), Needs assessment: Theory and methods. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Thomson, G. (1987). Needs. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.


Kaufman, R. (1988). Planning educational systems: A results based approach. Lancaster, PA & Basil, Switzerland: Technomic Publishing Co


Robinson, D. G. Robinson, J. C. (1989). Training for impact: How to link training to business needs and measure the results. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Ostroff, C. & Ford, J.K (1989) Assessing Training Needs: Critical Levels of Analysis. In I. L. Goldstein, (Ed.),Training and Development in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Gilbert, T. F., & Gilbert, M. B. (1989, Jan.). Performance engineering: Making human productivity a science. Performance & Instruction.


Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1990) Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Darraugh, B. (1991). It takes (six-step model for needs assessment). Training & Development Journal, v45, n3, p21(3)


Kaufman, R. (1992). Strategic planning plus. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Banathy, B. H. (1992). A systems view of education: Concepts and principles for effective practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.


Kaufman, R., Rojas, A., & Mayer, H. (1993). Needs assessment: A user’s guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ., Educational Technology


Witkin, B. R. (1994). Needs Assessment Since 1981: The State of the Practice. Evaluation Practice, 15 (1), 17-27.


Witkin, B. R., & Altschuld, J. W. (1995). Planning and conducting needs assessments: A practical guide.Sage Publications; Thousand Oaks, CA.


Watkins, R. & Kaufman, R. (1996: Nov.). An Update on Relating Needs Assessment and Needs Analysis. Performance Improvement, 35 (10), 10-13.

Triner, D.,Greenberry, A. and Watkins, R. (1996). Training Needs Assessment: A Contradiction in Terms. Educational Technology, 36(6), 51-55.


Endacott, R. (1997). Clarifying the concept of need: a comparison of two approaches to concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 471-476.


Watkins, R., Leigh, D. And Kaufman, R. (1998). Needs Assessment: A digest, review, and comparison of needs assessment literature. Performance Improvement Journal, 37(7), 40-53.

Kaufman, R. (1998). Strategic thinking: A guide to identifying and solving problems, Revised Ed. Washington, D.C. & Arlington, VA: The International Society for Performance Improvement.

Harless, J. (1998). The Eden Conspiracy: Educating for Accomplished Citizenship. Wheaton, IL: Guild V Publications.


Kaufman, R., Oakley-Brown, H., Watkins, R., and Leigh, D. (2003). Strategic planning for success: Aligning people, performance, and payoffs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Watkins, R., and Wedman, J. (2003). A process for aligning performance improvement resources and strategies. Performance Improvement Journal, 42(7), 9-17.

Hamilton, L. A. (2003). The Political Philosophy of Needs. Cambridge.


Reader, S. (ed.) (2005), The Philosophy of Need, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Kaufman, R. (2006). 30 Seconds That Can Change Your Life: A Decision-Making Guide for Those Who Refuse to be Mediocre. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.

Kaufman, R. (2006). Change, Choices, and Consequences: A Guide to Mega Thinking and Planning. Amherst, MA. HRD Press Inc.




Watkins, R. (2007). Performance By Design: The systematic selection, design, and development of performance technologies that produce useful results. Amherst, Ma:HRD Press and Silver Spring, Md:International Society for Performance Improvement.

Kaufman, R, & Guerra-Lopez, I. (2008) The Assessment Book: Applied Strategic Thinking and Performance Improvement Through Self-assessments. Amherst, MA. HRD Press Inc.


Watkins, R. and Leigh, D. (Eds.) (2009). The Handbook of Improving Performance in the Workplace – Volume 2: Selecting and Implementing Performance Interventions. San Francisco: Wiley-Jossey/Bass and Silver Spring, MD: ISPI.

Altschuld, J. W. (2010). The Needs Assessment KIT. (ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. [5 volume series]

Altschuld, J. W. (2010). The Needs Assessment KIT. (ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. [5 volume series]

Moore, S. (2010). Ethics by Design: Strategic Thinking and Planning for Exemplary Performance, Responsible Results, and Societal Accountability. Amherst, MA. HRD Press.


Watkins, R., West-Meiers, M., & Visser, Y. (2012). A guide to assessing needs: Tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Available for free online at NeedsAssessment.org or through the World Bank.

Altschuld, J.W. (2014) Bridging the Gap between Asset/Capacity Building and Needs Assessment: Concepts and Practical Applications. Sage Publications; Thousand Oaks, CA.

Altschuld, J.W. and Watkins, R. EdS (2014). Special Issue: Needs Assessment: Trends and a View Toward the Future. New Directions in Evaluation (an Amer. Eval. Assoc. publication).  This special issue of the journal includes eight original articles on needs assessment.